The Congress expressed its gratitude to the Soviet Government and to its Premier for their permission to form a Polish Kosciuszko Division, and gave their pledge that the " Poles in the Soviet Union will carry out their duty as soldiers, fighting alongside the heroic Red Army against the German invader." The Congress also affirmed that it would not allow " any trouble to be created or any wedge to be driven between the Polish people and the Soviet Union." " Stalin in reply had declared that " the Soviet Union will do everything ... to strengthen the Polish-Soviet friendship and to aid with all the means within its power the re- building of a strong and independent Poland." The pronouncements of the e Patriots * were similar to those made in July, 1940,, before the annexation of Lithuania., Latvia and Estonia by their sovietised Governments, and the phrases regarding friendship with the U.S.S.R. sounded ominously identical. In addition-, the Congress in Moscow confirmed that, contrary to the statement of the Kremlin and the c law ' issued by the Soviets, there were, after all, a number of Polish citizens still in the U.S.S.R. The publishing of Stalin's telegram to the * Union of the Polish Patriots* in the Soviet Press, and the acknowledgment thereby of this new organ of Soviet propaganda, came as a warning. The nucleus of a prospective Soviet Polish Government had now been created. c Take heed, Polish Government in London and you Allies ! You have your Polish Government, and now we are prepared and, in the matter of a few hours, we can elevate and enthrone our own! * As one of its primary aims, the * Union * had announced " the organ- isation of Polish armed forces who, shoulder to shoulder with the Red Army, will fight the Hitlerite Germany.'* While this was in the act of being acclaimed at the Congress, its members were informed that the Soviet Council of Peoples' Commissars had " acceded to the request made by the Union of Polish Patriots and permitted the formation of a Polish division to bear the name of Kosciuszko " and, furthermore, that it was already in the process of formation. The Soviet authorities had no time to waste, and, in any case, they knew there would be no question but that the Congress would agree on this point. In December, 1918, the Polish Government in Warsaw had received definite proof that the Bolshevik Government had formed Polish Com- munist regiments named after the Polish cities such as Warsaw, San- domierz, etc.—an action which the Polish Government had considered to be particularly unfriendly and aggressive, inasmuch as they believed that these regiments were designed for the invasion of Polish territory and for the purpose of fermenting a social revolution. In his Note of January 7, 1919, the Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Chicherin, had admitted the existence of such units on Soviet territory, and had declared that the names of Polish cities had been assigned these units, a fact of which the " proletariat of these cities was proud." 15?